ESSO-National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) is an autonomous R&D Institution under the Ministry of Earth Sciences. NCAOR is mandated for coordinating and implementing the Indian Polar activities in the Arctic, Antarctic, Southern Ocean and the Himalayas. Indian polar expedition history dates back to 1981 when the first scientific expedition to Antarctica was undertaken from the shores of Goa. Dedicated Southern Ocean expeditions began in 2004, with bipolar focus by initiating research in the Arctic during 2007. NCAOR took up a challenge to reach the South Pole (2010-11) marking the centenary of the first arrival of man at the geographic south pole.India commissioned its 3rd Antarctic Research Base 'Bharati' in the Laresemann Hill during 2012 and a permanent Research Base 'Himansh' in Himalaya during 2016.India also embarked on an important IODP Expedition to Arabian Sea to understand the initiation of the Indian monsoon.